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Answer each question individually and title each answer with W5D1 W5D2 ect…. Include in text citations Each answer must be at least 300 words.
There are four main quantitative experimental research designs, which all serve specific research purposes. The four experimental research designs include 1) pre-experimental, 2) true experimental, 3) quasi-experimental, and 4) ex post facto. You will find similarities and differences among the four research designs, as well as determine which research design may be suitable for your selected topic. As you learn about the four experimental research designs, think about how you could potentially use one or more of these research designs to conduct your own study based on your selected topic from Week 1.
• Compare and contrast these four experimental research designs: pre-experimental, true experimental, quasi-experimental, and ex post facto.
• In your comparison, include the following:
o Discuss two similarities and two differences of the four experimental research designs. To guide you, you may consider answering the following questions:
What are the necessary conditions required for each design?
What are some of the potential threats to internal and external validity for each design?
o Explain, briefly, how one of these research designs may be appropriate for your selected topic.
The ability to develop a hypothesis from a research question is a skill. Quantitative research requires a hypothesis for investigation as it defines the relationship between the two variables being studied. For this discussion, you will find an article that describes a quantitative study and analyze its research questions and hypotheses.
• Locate a quantitative study in ProQuest Dissertations and Theses or an article describing a quantitative study
o Download and save your article as a PDF file.
Attach the study or article you found to your discussion post, and address the following:
o Share an example of a quantitative research question and associated hypothesis.
o Identify and label the dependent and independent variables for each hypothesis.
o Provide examples of Type 1 and Type 2 errors for the null hypotheses.
Due to significant violations of federal and institutional rules and regulations, ethical issues in human participant research have received increasing attention over the past 50 years. While it might seem obvious that respect, integrity, fidelity, and justice should serve as the ethical foundation for all research activities, this has not always been the case for research involving human participation. In this discussion, you will determine if your proposed study is ethically defensible by answering a series of questions.
• Restate your topic or general idea for your proposed research study. Prison overpopulation and crime control
• Answer the following questions (keeping your topic from Week 1 in mind):
a. Might your study present any physical risks or hazards to participants? If so, list them.
b. Might your study incur any psychological harm to all or some participants (e.g., offensive stimulus materials, threats to self-esteem)? If so, identify the specific forms of harm that might result.
c. Will participants incur any significant financial costs (e.g., transportation costs, mailing expenses)? If so, how might you minimize or eliminate those costs?
d. What benefits might your study have for (a) participants, (b) your discipline, and (c) society at large?
e. Do you need to seek informed consent from participants? Why or why not?
f. If you need to seek informed consent, how might you explain the nature and goals of your study to potential participants in a way that they can understand? Write a potential explanation.
g. What specific steps will you take to ensure participants’ privacy? List them.
h. If applicable, what format might a post-participation debriefing take? What information should you include in your debriefing?
Reliability and validity are closely related and often the terms are used in the same sentence, but they mean different things. For example, a measurement can be reliable, but not valid. However, if a measurement is valid, it is usually also reliable. If your proposed mini research proposal is of a quantitative study, the reliability and validity of your results depend on creating a strong research design. As you think about the topic you selected in Week 1, consider how you can ensure that your quantitative study results are both valid and reliable.
• Read Reliability vs Validity: What’s the Difference? (Links to an external site.)
• Explain how you would ensure your results of your proposed quantitative research study are both valid and reliable by answering the following questions:
• What two steps or actions you can take to address validity?
• What two steps or actions you can take to address reliability?